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Less Ice Equals More Seal Strandings on US Coast

Less Ice Equals More Seal Strandings on US CoastDuring the spring season, harp seals mate on the sea ice off the east coast of Canada. They even rear their young in the same place as well. However, things have changed and many seals have been stranded along the U.S. East Coast, which is in the south of the Carolinas. In fact, they are far away from their usual habitat. Since the ice levels in the North Atlantic have declined, a great number of seals have been stuck at the beaches either in poor health or in a terrible situation. Even they have found dead on the beaches.

According to the journal PLOS ONE and Brianne Soulen, a study co-author and biologist at the University of North Texas, the decline of sea ice is partially responsible for the increase of seal standings. She also said demographic factors play a major role as a large number of stranded seals are young and about 62% of seals are male. She has performed a research on this situation while studying at Duke University.

Soulen told LiveScience, male seals are prone to get stranded because they wander around farther afield on their own. However, the study of Soulen has ruled out the possibility that strandings occur for the inbreeding. And stranded seals are more diverse than non-stranded seals. According to Soulen –”Genetics didn’t seem to have an influence”.

All snow-colored harp seals mate on the ice sea and give birth at the same place as well. After that, mothers nurse their young and try to stay with for a long time. But, after a certain age, the pups are on their own. According to Soulen, over the years, the researchers have found out that with less ice, the existing ice has become crowded. Some seals have been forced to go into the water, even though they don’t know how to navigate in the water. As a result, these seals follow the groups of fish which are moving to the south or they would become unsettled, she added.

From 1991 to 2010, almost 3,100 seals were stranded along the U.S. East Coast with some of these seals were washed and dead ashore. On the other hand, some were found to be in critical condition. They have been sick for a long time with dehydration. For almost 30 years, sea ice cover in April, which is a major time for seal pupping. According to the Cecilia Bitz, a researcher at the University of Washington, the percentage of seal pupping has declined by eight percent in the Arctic.

According to Peter Boveng, a marine mammal biologist at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center, other types of animals such as the polar bears depend heavily on sea ice for surviving. But, this dependency has been threatened by the retreat of sea ice. Additionally, the threat of declining sea ice in Alaska has led two types of seals (ringed and bearded) to become an endangered species. They are not listed under the Endangered Species Act.

Few Things You Didn’t Know About Lunar Eclipses

https://1drv.ms/w/s!AhIPQgZM_9WShf8K5dOlBR6uszCbTwLunar eclipse is a rare spectacle, which occurs in a specific time. Typically, you will see a lunar eclipse when the moon is passing behind the earth into its shadow or umbra. In that sense, it’s a much talked event and people are always curious about it. So, in this article, we are going to talk about the six things you didn’t know about lunar eclipse before. Let’s move forward and read the article in full.

  1. Lunar eclipse occur when there is a full moon: Since moon is the opposite of the sun, so when it’s in the opposite direction of the sun, the earth remains in between the moon and the sun, casting a shadow on the moon. Thus, lunar eclipse occur in the world. You won’t see lunar eclipse every month as the orbit of the moon is tilted five degrees more than the earth’s orbit.
  2. When the earth, sun, and moon align, we call it Syzygy: In the month of May 26, 2013, Jupiter, Venus and Mercury had aligned in the evening sky, creating a Syzygy. Usually, this term is used when three bodies are lined up in the space. The word – Syzygy is a Greek word, which refers to ‘yoked together.’ Greek people pronounced this word like –sizigee.
  3. You will see three types of lunar eclipse: There are three types of lunar eclipse – total, partial, and penumbral. When there is a total lunar eclipse, the entire moon will go through partial eclipses on either side of the totality. You will see a total eclipse if the shadow of the earth covers the moon fully. A partial eclipse will occur if the shadow of the earth covers only a portion of the moon. What’s more, the penumbral eclipse will occur if the earth’s lighter and outer shadow covers the moon. This type of eclipse often go unnoticed by the casual sky watchers.
  4. The total lunar eclipse darkens the moon: When there is a total lunar eclipse, not only it covers the entire moon, but also it darkens the moon as well.
  5. If you are on moon, you can see the lunar eclipse from there: You can see a lunar eclipse from the moon. Sounds interesting? Yes, it should be because when you are standing on the moon, we just see the earth is darkened as the sun is behind it.
  6. During a lunar eclipse, the moon will be dark because of the refraction: At the time of lunar eclipse, the moon turns into a rusty shade of red as the earth’s light is refracting. Therefore, the moon looks reddish and we call it a blood moon. This happens because the way of the light refraction in the earth’s atmosphere and it’s called Rayleigh scattering. Additionally, it is the same reason for the red color of the sunset and sunrise. Also, during the lunar eclipse, the actual color of the moon is related to the particles in the earth’s atmosphere.

Some Bonus Facts: Here are some bonus facts that we believe are significant about lunar eclipses.

  1. All lunar eclipse have time limits: Lunar eclipses don’t last forever. To be precise, a lunar eclipse doesn’t last longer than three hours and forty minutes (according to the National Maritime Museum in London). A totality or a total lunar eclipse would only last up to one hour and forty minutes. Even some lunar eclipses would be shorter than you think. The reason behind the time limits is due to the shape of the shadow of the earth. The earth is cone-shaped. Therefore, the time duration of the lunar eclipse depends on the time to get out of the earth’s shadow.
  2. Between several million and a few billion years, the lunar eclipses will be different: According to Space.com, the moving rate for the moon is 1.6 inches each year. It means the moon moves away from the earth at this speed. As a result, it will cause a massive change in how the earth’s shadow appears on the face of the moon.

Bottom Line

The bottom line is lunar eclipses are fantastic events, which we must enjoy to the fullest. So, we believe these above facts will increase your interests in lunar eclipses. Let us know what you think about the lunar eclipses by commenting below.

Big Game and Small Game: Top Animals to Hunt in The World

Big Game

Being a big game hunter you go to hunt big, wild animals, which are different from country to country. In North America, hunter should harvest the following wild animals; caribou, wild boar, rocky mountain elk, cougar, turkey, grizzly bear, gray wolf, Canada moose, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, bison and whitetail deer. Sweden is one of the favorite countries for hunters that there they find an ample population of moose, beavers, wolves, bears, lynx, wild boar, and otters.

Big Game In America

Top Animals to Hunt in The WorldCoyotes are one of the favorable big game animals in America. Coyote is family member of wolves, fox, and jackal. They are very sharp to smell and hear. Mainly they live in North American forests, mountains and plains and deserts. Further, they can be preyed in the United States, Canada, Mexico and Central America.

Big Game In Africa

Many hunters prefer African countries for big game. Tanzania is one of them where you can play with air rifles, crossbows effectively. The country is also known as African Hunter’s Paradise because of the popular animals for hunting there. Few famous ones are; lion, buffaloes, sitatunga, lesser kunduk, and gerenuk. Mozambique is another African country for big game hunters where they can harvest mainly dangerous animals, lion, leopard, cape buffalo, and elephant. South Africa is an easy to access place for hunters around the world. It is the best country for hunting white rhino, and nyala, suni, and gnu. When tracking game it is always good to have a good digital camera with you to film the hunt which has several benefits of documenting the process, keeping memories, and tracking the game by reviewing film and photos from your trip.

Big Game In Europe

However, Sweden is the favorite country for hunting, but Spain is the most visiting country for big game by international hunters. American hunters love to visit Spain for ibex, mouflon sheep, red stag, roe deer, chamois, fallow and wild boar.

Small Game

Top Animals to Hunt in The WorldBeing a small game hunter you go to hunt small, wild animals, which are different from country to country. Normally, you would go for rabbit, hare, squirrel, opossum, raccoon, porcupine, skunk, ring-tailed cat, armadillo, and ruffed grouse. It is up to the region though. As much as American love hunting, there is a majority who protest against hunting and demand to ban killing animals and their species. That’s another topic in which one can debate. Here you are going to know about the small game animals and their geographical inhabitants.

Small Game In America

Argentina is the best for birds hunting go along with air rifle and shoot until you have pellets in your bag. The best weather is March, April and October.

Small Game In Europe

In UK, game is legal only on Sunday and at nights. The most popular animals are hunted in UK as follows; black grouse, red grouse, brown hare, ptarmigan, grey partridge, red-legged partridge, common pheasant. Other small game animals which are randomly harvested in UK named; Duck (tufted duck, pintail, mallard, and pochard), goose, woodpigeon, woodcock, snipe, rabbit, and golden plover. Iceland is famous for Reindeer, Ptarmigan, Puffin, Auk, Goose, and Mallard.

Ways to Conserve Water In the Home and Yard

Conserving water is an eco-friendly way to decrease the utility bills. Many of you waste the water in a daily use, and in a huge amount. Sometimes, people around the world don’t care if there is a leakage in their home. They prefer to waste water to fixtures the faucet or pipeline. You are going to read 10 ways to conserve water in the home and yard. You must apply the following water conservation tips;

  1. Ways to Conserve Water In the Home and YardFaucets and Pipe Leakages

Leakage seems nothing but if it is collected in a bucket then you will know how much the leak is dripping water per day. It is about 20 gallons wastage in 24 hours. Everyone should concern and fix this issue on time.

  1. Using Toilet as a Bin

Many of you use toilet as a bin and flow the trash through flush. Have you ever thought how much gallons of water do you trash with waste materials? It is about 5 to 7 gallons which is too much if you value the water seriously. It is better to use bin for garbage, not toilets.

  1. Washing Face or Brushing Teeth

While washing face or brushing teeth, most of us keep the faucets running. If each family member does the same then you can guess how much you are wasting the water. In this case, if you turn off the faucet then you can conserve many gallons of water per day.

  1. Washing Dishes and Cutlery

Kitchen faucet is the most using unit and a center point of water wastage in the home. Dried dishes, plates and cutlery consume more water than the fresh ones. It is better to wash your dishes by hand when there is no crusted on food. Also, don’t forget to turn off the faucet while washing dishes.

  1. Ways to Conserve Water In the Home and YardWatering to Plants and Lawn

Not every next home has lawn or yard in the world, but those who have big lawns should not let their lawns soaked. Watering your lawn timely once or twice a day is good, but soaking the lawn is obviously wastage of water.

  1. Washing Garages, Vehicles and Gates

Many people use pressure washers to wash the sidewalks, garages, gates even vehicles. Avoid using pressure washers because it is not only wasting water even if the pressure washer unit is electric then you are wasting electricity too. You can use broom to clean garages, clothe to clean gates and prefer waterless car wash to clean your vehicle.

Final Tips

Water saving effects on your utility bills, each home can save around 10 to 20 gallons per day if considered the water conservation tips discussed above. These 6 tips are the basic ones; you should consider yourself that what units you are having at home that consume water such as in-sink garbage disposals. They work better in huge amount of water. You can find such units’ alternatives, just as compost pile would be better to use if water concerned. And, low shower heads can be preferred to high shower heads.

What Is the Smallest Thing You Can See?

What Is the Smallest Thing You Can SeeIf you look around and have a closer look at your surroundings, you will find the world is filled with many things like people, trees, birds, cars, and many more. If you watch the night sky, you will see stars, moons, and even the distant planets. Maybe these objects rest millions of miles away from you, but aren’t these things amazing for you? You can see them with your very own eyes.

However, what about the things that you can’t see with your eyes? Yes, we are talking about the intangible things. The things that we mentioned earlier are tangible but there is much more than what you can see through the eyes such as germs dust mites, bacteria and so on. These things are all around us and they are invisible to our naked eyes.

In terms of science, we called these things – ‘Microscopic Objects’ because they can’t be seen without microscopes or magnifying glass. In addition, our eyes have limitations as we are not able to see small objects without these devices. The term – ‘Magnification’ refers to making something big without changing its actual physical size. You will see that magnifying tools utilizes a special kind of lens for bending light at an angle, which will increase the size of the image that we will see through our eyes. As a result, you can see the tiniest of objects easily. The more the lens is increased, the better you can see the objects.

What Is the Smallest Thing You Can SeeAccording to experts, with our regular vision, we can see objects small as about 0.1 millimeters. And this is without the help of any tools. The smallest things you can see through your eyes are human hair and lice (both of these things can be seen with the naked eye and under a microscope).

However, if you use powerful microscopes, we can see things that incredibly small. Even these things that are not possible to see through the naked eye can be seen with microscopes. A microscope will help you see objects small as 0.001 mm or one micrometer. The ‘microsphere nanoscope,’ a recent invention will allow us to see things up to 20 times smaller. This device is a combination of a standard microscope and a complex device, known as the transparent microsphere. The experts believe this powerful tool will help them to see through human cells. Even they will be able to examine live viruses in a detailed manner.

In the future, more accurate tools and devices will be developed to see even smaller things. This is the belief of scientists because there is no limit to how small an object can be. Therefore, scientists are thrilled to have the possibilities of this new tool that will be opened up in the future time.

What Type of Gun Safe Should You Have at Home?

A gun safe enhances you to keep your gun safe at home. It prevents burglars from accessing the gun in your absence. It also allows you to hide your gun from unintended view or use by your children or visitors. It is important to select a gun safe which is easy to access and operate.

This lets you to use your gun for security and defense in case of any unexpected occurrence. Therefore, a proper gun safe enhances you to protect the gun and your property from falling into the wrong hands.

The In-Wall Gun Safe

What Type of Gun Safe Should You Have at HomeThe in-wall gun safe has emerged as the best and most secure for the safety of your gun. This gun safe comes in different size, shapes, colors, and even locking mechanisms that enhance you to safeguard your gun. The following are some reasons why you should consider the In-Wall Gun Safe over other types:

  1. Easy to Conceal

The in-wall gun safe enhances you to conceal your gun safely and easily. This gun safe does not show up like other cabinets or safes do. Mostly, in-wall gun safes are designed to suit the color and the surface of the wall.

Thus, it is difficult for a burglar to detect its location in the wall. This keeps your gun safe from being stolen. At the same time, it keeps it from being touched or used wrongly by kids.

  1. Easy to Install

Preferably, it is easy to install the in-wall gun safe during the construction of the house. This only requires you to fit the gun safe between two studs. However, you can also install the gun safe to an already-built house using its template. The template enhances you to mark and cut a sufficient space to fit the gun safe.

  1. Easy to Access and Use

What Type of Gun Safe Should You Have at HomeMostly, individuals fit the in-wall gun safe in a favorable height which does not require them to bend or strain their legs. At the same time, others install the safes in free area for quick access. In such a location, you can be able to easily access and use your gun safe in case of any insecurity issue or a need for self-defense.

  1. Safe from Children

Unlike under the bed gun safe, the in-wall gun safe is safe from access and usage by children. In case you forget to lock the safe, it remains safe from children access since it is out of their reach. If the safe takes on the same color as the wall, it is hardly possible for the children to view it. Therefore, they cannot access your gun.

  1. Improved Safety

In-wall gun safe does not show up as other safes do. It remains inside the wall and even in the same look as the wall. Therefore, in case a burglar accesses your house, it is difficult for them to trace the gun safe location. Thus, in-wall gun safe provides an improved safety for your gun.

Conclusion

In-wall gun safe enables you to easily access and use your gun in cases of insecurity. At the same time, it enhances you to save a space which would have been specifically devoted for a gun safe since it is fitted in the wall. Therefore, this type of gun safe proves to be the most suitable type for your home.

5 Most Dangerous Zoos In The World

Zoos offer an exciting adventure and provide visitors with the opportunity to experience wild animals up close and personal outside of their natural habitats. When visitors break through barriers in an attempt to take the perfect selfie or animals escape from their enclosures there can be fatal accidents. Here is a list of the 5 most dangerous zoos in the world:

1. Beijing Zoo, China

Most Dangerous Zoos In The WorldPandas are a national treasure in China and the Giant Panda enclosure at Beijing Zoo is one of the country’s top tourist sights. Whilst they might appear cute and cuddly, giant pandas have long claws, sharp teeth and can be vicious. Gu Gu one of the giant pandas at the zoo is responsible for three separate attacks on humans. In 2006 a drunk Chinese man jumped into Gu Gu’s enclosure and tried to pet him; the panda bit the man on both legs and he was hospitalized. The following year a child jumped into Gu Gu’s exercise area and was mauled. In 2009 Gu Gu made global headlines by attacking a visitor who once again jumped into the enclosure.

2. Dallas Zoo, USA

At Dallas Zoo in 2004, a thirteen-year-old male gorilla that weighed three hundred pounds scaled the wall of its enclosure and went on a rampage attacking four people. During the pandemonium the zoo was forced to evacuate over three hundred people from the area and the gorilla was shot dead by keepers. The injured people included a mother and her three-year-old child who sustained multiple bites to his head and torso. Two other were bitten with multiple incision marks on their arms and legs.

3. Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark

Most Dangerous Zoos In The WorldIn 2012, a twenty year old man was mauled to death by three tigers after he broke into an enclosure at Copenhagen Zoo enclosure in the middle of the night. The man’s was repeatedly bitten on his legs, chest, face and throat. Sadly he was found dead the following morning by the zoo staff when they arrived to work.

4. Berlin Zoo, Germany

The largest species of bear, the polar bear is a vicious carnivore which sits at the top of the Arctic food chain. In 2009, a 32 year old woman narrowly escaped death after jumping into the polar bear enclosure at Berlin Zoo. The woman was nearly being mauled to death by one of four polar bears. She sustained serious injuries to her limbs but was dragged to safety just in time by the keepers.

5. Lujan Zoo, Argentina

The Lujan Zoo located just outside Buenos Aires and offers visitors the opportunity to take the perfect Instagram selfie with wild animals. In certain enclosures, electric fences and plexiglass partitions are removed to allow visitors the opportunity to enter animal cages so they can pose with, cuddle, feed and even ride wild animals including bears, tigers and cheetahs. The zoo claims that the animals are domesticated using special training techniques, however has faced allegations of drugging the animals to allow visitors to touch and hold them.

How to Repair a Leaking Kitchen Faucet

Should I buy a new kitchen faucet?

If you ever happen to have a leaking kitchen faucet you know just how annoying that can be when it leaks all over your kitchen. The first step is to make sure that the actual faucet is not broken because if that is the case the best solution might be to buy a new kitchen faucet. There is a wide range of new sink faucets to choose from and many different types that range from touche-less to pull-out to commercial faucets use in commercial settings and upscale restaurants have grown in popularity among homeowners in recent years as they offer more power normal faucets. Here’s a guide to the different available kitchen faucet types or if you are more interested in choosing a sink faucet based on color and material, this guide might be more useful.

How to repair a kitchen faucet

When was the last time you had to ask yourself why you didn’t become a master plumber? Let me guess. Sometime around midnight. Last night. You were awakened by that awful “music” of dripping sound. The unknown artist was Mrs. Leaky Faucet. If you want to hush it for good, follow these easy steps and become a family handyman.

How to Repair a Leaking Kitchen FaucetSTEP 1:

  • Calm yourself down. Think of the result. Keep repeating:”I can do it!”
  • Make sure you are doing your job during the daytime so that you can rely on your neighbor’s help and replacement parts.
  • Keep in mind that you will have to identify which part of your kitchen faucet is causing a leaking.
  • It can be an O-ring but it can be a broken plumbing.
  • In the last case, you should better hire a professional plumber.

STEP 2:

  • Equip yourself with the following tools:

-Adjustable wrench; C wrench

-Flat-head screwdriver

-Penetrating oil and replacement washers and O-rings.

STEP 3:

  • Turn off the water supply under the sink and turn on the music. To keep you pretending that you love this adventure. Place some old cloth in the sink so to prevent dents and to collect dirt. Remove the handle with the flat head screwdriver. If possible cover it with a soft cloth so as not to damage the parts you are unwinding. Penetrating oil can help you in loosening it, allowing you to separate the faucet handle from the stem.

STEP 4:

Be sure that you have removed all the parts of the handle knob, especially the decorative ones and that your “patient” is still “alive”.Use a flat-head screwdriver to accomplish this task. Unwind all the screws underneath the knob, the ones that connect handle and the stem. Now, loosen your packaging nut with a wrench. You will notice the stem. Remove it as well.

STEP 5:

How to Repair a Leaking Kitchen FaucetCollect all the faucet parts you’ve unscrewed so far and see if any of them is damaged. If so, visit your local hardware store and buy new ones. If they are intact then you should double-check replacement washers and O- rings. Generally speaking, if the water leaks in the handle area, it is probably a corroded O ring, seat washer or a stem nut (ensuring a valve from uncontrolled drilling) that causes a problem. It means you are a lucky guy who has just identified the problem.

STEP 6:

Once the problem is identified you must be sure that your replacement washers and O-rings are the perfect matches. If they do not fit the seat you will have to buy new ones and in different sizes: cone-shaped or flat. Your local hardware store salesman can advise you on these issues.

STEP 7:

Now is the time to reassemble all the parts carefully. Stick to the following order: replacement washer, O-ring, stem, packing nut, screw, handle and cap. Slowly turn the knob to test the running water and see if the leaking has stopped.

If, after all the steps you have taken your kitchen faucet still leaks, then you will have to inspect your valve seat. Its corrosion may also pose a problem as well as warn-out parts or broken plumbing. If that is the case a professional plumber’s phone number is your last option to save water.

6 Things To Know About Telescopes Before you Buy

Our universe is huge and there is so much we don’t know about what’s out there. If you’re interested in studying the night sky, you’ll need to invest in a quality telescope, and make sure to read about the best telescopes before you buy as there are so many types of telescopes for different needs. With a vast range of telescopes available to purchase, the prospect of making a big purchase can often be quite daunting. If you are an amateur hobbyist or an experience stargazer, these simple six things will help you make the right purchase and find a telescope that will last you a lifetime.

1. More magnification isn’t necessarily better

Things To Know About Telescopes Before you BuyA telescope’s product description may boast “300X” power or more. Be wary of such claims as more magnification doesn’t necessarily correlate to a better image quality.Whilst a higher magnification may make an object appear larger, it also means that light gathered through the lens will be spread over a wider space resulting in a less clear image in the eyepiece. For a beginner, lower magnification might in fact provide a better stargazing experience particularly if you are interested in viewing clusters of stars which are more spread out.

2. Multiple eyepieces

Telescopes should come with several interchangeable eyepieces or ‘oculars’ of both high and low magnitude. As you will be looking at many different kinds of objects in the night sky, some close, some more distant, some clustered and some spread out, it is important to have a few eyepiece options as each will require a different magnitude. Larger eyepieces require less light and make it easier to locate dim objects and keep them in view. Smaller eyepieces provide a higher magnitude and are useful for viewing very bright, far away objects.

3. Know your terminology

There are two common types of telescopes: refractor and reflector. A refractor telescope utilises two different lenses, a large one at one end and a smaller one which the one you look through. A reflector uses a curved mirror at the bottom of the telescope to gather light. Make sure you know which telescope suits your needs.

4. The larger the aperture, the better the image quality

Things To Know About Telescopes Before you BuyThe size of your telescope’s aperture determines its power and affects how far and how clearly you will be able to see objects. The aperture size impacts the telescope’s ability to collect light. The larger the aperture, the more light the telescope can collect and the better quality the image you will see. If you want to see crystal clear objects, go for a larger aperture.

5. Consider the size and weight

Think about exactly how and when you will be using your telescope. Telescopes with larger focal ratios and high apertures can be extremely heavy to transport. If you will need to carry your telescope around with you then consider a smaller instrument which will be more portable and could fit in the trunk of your car.

6. Invest in a high quality mount

Whilst it might not be the most exciting component, the mount is by far the most important element of a good telescope. The mount is the stand that ensures the telescope remains steady whilst you are looking through it. It will be extremely difficult to keep anything in focus if your mount is shaking. A high quality mount will keep your telescope stable and secure against vibrations and wobbles so you can view remote objects with precision.

How Does a Flush Toilet Work

How Does a Flush Toilet WorkHave you ever wondered how the flush system of a toilet works? The flush mechanism is based on the principles of gravity and uses a simple system of water pressure, levers, siphons, valves and suction. Toilets are constructed of two main components: a toilet tank or cistern at the back and the toilet bowl or basin at the bottom which is covered by the seat. All of the important parts of the flush mechanism are hidden in the toilet tank which can be accessed by simply lifting up the ceramic lid. A standard toilet tank will contain several crucial components including: a float ball, a float rod, inlet valve, inlet tube, handle, piston and a siphon. There are generally speaking two types of flushing powers the pressure assisted toilets that are smaller and more powerful and have been very popular in commercial settings and then the gravity feed toilets that are more popular for homeowners as they offer more design and are cheaper. There are however both pros and cons to both types.

How Does a Toilet Flush Work?

The toilet tank is filled with clean water through an inlet tube which is supplied and controlled by the inlet valve. Typical toilet tanks contain a float ball which is attached to a float rod. The ball is designed to float on the surface of the water. As the ball rises, the connected rod closes the inlet valve to turn off the water supply. When the toilet tank is full, the rod presses hard enough against the inlet valve to control the release of water from the inlet tube in order to prevent the tank overflowing.

U Shaped Siphon

How Does a Flush Toilet WorkWhen the toilet handle is pressed, a lever inside the toilet tank pulls up a plastic piston at the base of the cistern. This action creates suction in a U shaped siphon which forces water from the toilet tank to rush past the piston, through the siphon and into the toilet bowl. When the handle is released, the piston drops back into its original position ready for the handle to be pressed again. The suction mechanism empties the toilet tank fairly rapidly and causes the float ball to fall to the bottom of the tank. This means that the float rod releases the inlet valve and the toilet tank will be filled up again with fresh water from the inlet tube.

S Shaped Pipe

The clean water released through the suction action of the siphon is flushed from the toilet tank into the bowl. The rush of water will clean the sides of the toilet bowl and under the rim where it is difficult to access. The force of gravity pushes the excess liquid and any waste carried with it out through a bend in a short S shaped pipe which connects to the drain. Water flushed through the pipe will carry all waste with it which is then taken to a treatment plant or septic tank. Excess clean water released from the toilet tank will remain at the bottom of the toilet bowl ready for the next use. The S shaped bend in the sewage pipe traps bad odors from the drain pipe and sewage system. The S pipe also causes another suction action which assists in speeding up the flushing process.